(Weight Loss Surgery)Bariatric surgery helps people who are very obese to lose a lot of weight and improve their health. Most weight-loss surgeries limit how much food your stomach can hold, making you feel full after just a small meal (called restriction). They sometimes also limit the calories and nutrients your body can absorb (called malabsorption). Studies show that bariatric surgery also changes the action of certain hormones, such as ghrelin—“the hunger hormone.” People have these types of surgery if other methods of weight loss have not worked for them and/or if they have serious health problems caused by obesity.
Bariatric surgery could have both benefits and risks for your endocrine system—the network of glands that produce, store, and release hormones. Hormones play a part in your body’s energy balance, reproductive system, growth and development, and reactions to stress and injury. Different types of bariatric surgery vary in the kind and degree of risks and benefits.
What are the most common types of bariatric surgery?
Although new techniques are always evolving, the most common types of bariatric surgery today are
›Adjustable gastric band (AGB). In AGB surgery, a band is placed around the top of the stomach to create a very small pouch that can hold only a small amount of food. Doctors can later adjust the size of the opening that lets food pass into the rest of the stomach.
›Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). RYGB reduces the size of the stomach, causes hormonal changes, and can lower the amount of nutrients that are absorbed from food. The digestive tract is rerouted, bypassing most of the stomach and part of the small intestine.
›Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG). VSG greatly reduces the size of the stomach to lower food intake. It also slows down how quickly food leaves your stomach and causes hormonal changes.